Complex Adaptive Systems

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) is one of the key issues in complex systems study. Cas are systems that have a large numbers of components, often called agents, that interact and adapt or learn. Examples of complex adaptive systems include the stock market, social insect and ant colonies, the biosphere and the ecosystem, the brain and the immune system, the cell and the developing embryo, etc. The current study of the CAS mainly focuses on conceptual framework and computer simulations, while there is still very few rigorous theoretical results.